1.What is dust?
Answer:Dust is the tiny solid particles that can be suspended in the air for a longer period of time. A large amount of dust can be generated from various human production and living activities, and dust can also be generated from natural fractional corrosion with the flow of gases.
2.What is productive dust? What kinds of productive dusts are there?
A: Production dust refers to the solid particles formed in production and can be suspended in the gas insects for a long time. It is an important occupational hazard that pollutes the working environment and damages workers' health, and can cause a variety of occupational disorders. According to the nature of the production dust, can be summarized into two categories:
(1) Inorganic dust includes: mineral dust, such as quartz, asbestos, talc, coal, etc.; metallic dust, such as lead, manganese, iron, beryllium, tin, zinc, etc. and their compounds; artificial inorganic dust, such as macadam, cement, glass fiber, etc.
(2) Organic dust includes: animal dust, such as fur, silk, bone, etc; plant dust, such as cotton, hemp, grain, flax, sugar cane, wood, tea and other dust; artificial organic dust, such as organic dyes, pesticides, synthetic resin, rubber, fiber and other dust. In the production environment, the presence of a simple kind of dust is less common, in most cases for more than two kinds of dust mixture, generally called mixed dust.
3.What are the sources of production dust?
A: Industrial production with external force and mechanical processing of solid materials is the main source of productive dust, such as ore, stone mining, drilling, crushing, grinding, polishing, cutting, sieving, mixing, transport of crushed solid materials, etc., can produce a lot of dust. Next is the packaging, handling, mixing, stirring of solid powder substances, such as cement manufacturing and transportation; metal smelting and heating process generated by the steam in the air after cold condensation to form a solid particle-like smoke, such as welding, casting and metal processing generated by metal fume dust. Floating dust in the air flow or by mechanical vibration again floating in the air, it can form a secondary dust.
4.How does dust enter the human body and cause diseases?
A: Dust enters the body through the respiratory tract, and most of it can be excreted through breathing, only a small amount of dust can be retained in the lower respiratory tract and alveoli. Due to the different physical and chemical properties of production dust, different pathological changes can be produced in the body. Long-term inhalation of certain production dusts can cause a chronic systemic disease, mainly lung tissue fibrosis, called pneumoconiosis. Therefore, when working in dust-prone places, install dust monitoring systems to avoid more harm to the human body.
5.What are the main factors affecting the pathogenic effect of dust?
A: The physical and chemical properties of dust and the accumulation of dust in the lungs determine the nature and extent of dust hazards to the human body. The chemical properties of dust The chemical composition of dust is the main factor that determines the biological effects of dust. The ability of mineral dust to cause pulmonary fibrosis is mainly determined by the nature and content of fibrosis-causing dust in the dust. The higher the content of fibrogenic dust, the stronger the fibrogenic effect and the faster the onset and progression of lesions, with the strongest fibrogenic dust being free silica dust.